About RomaniaRomania is a country located in South-East of Central Europe, on the lower course of the Danube, at North of the Balkan Peninsula and the North-Western coast of the Black Sea. Its territory locates near the entire surface of the Danube Delta and the southern and central part of the Carpathian Mountains. It borders Bulgaria to the south, Serbia to the south-west, Hungary to the north-west, Ukraine to the north and east and Moldova to the east and the Black Sea coast is in the south-east.
Throughout history, different portions of the territory of actual Romania were in or under the administration of Dacia, the Roman Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire or the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Romania became a sovereign state in 1859 through the union of Moldova and the Romanian Country led by Alexandru Ioan Cuza and it was recognized as an independent country 19 years later. In 1918, Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia have joined Romania to form Great Romania or interwar Romania, which had maximum territorial expansion in the history of Romania (295,641 km2).
On the eve of the Second World War (1940), Great Romania (Rounded), under pressure from Germany led by Hitler and the collaboration of pro-Nazi government led by the Gigurtu, ceased to exist by the cession of territories to Hungary (northern Transylvania) Bulgaria (Quadrilateral) and the Soviet Union (Bessarabia, Herta and Northern Bukovina ). After the abolition of Antonescu's regime on 23 August 1944 and the return of weapons against the Axis Powers, Romania joined the Allied Powers (Britain, United States, France and the Soviet Union) and recovered northern Transylvania, which is completed by the Peace Treaty from Paris signed in 10 February 1947.
In the decay of the Soviet Union and the fall of the communist regime installed in Romania (1989), the country initiated a series of economic and political reforms. After a decade of economic problems, Romania introduced new general economic reforms (such as the flat tax in 2005) and joined the European Union on 1 January 2007.
Romania is a semi-presidential republic. It is the ninth largest country(238 391 km ²) and the seventh after the population (over 22 million) of European Union Member States. The capital, Bucharest, is the largest city and sixth in the European Union according to its population (1.9 million). In 2007, Sibiu was elected European Capital of Culture. Romania is a member of NATO (29 March 2004), of the European Union (1 January 2007), the Latin Union, the Francophonie and of OSCE.
The name "Romania" comes from "Romanian", a word derived from Latin romanus.
Romanian modern state was created by the unification of the principalities Moldavia and Wallachia (or Romanian Country) in 1859, concurrent with the election of Alexandru Ioan Cuza as ruler of both states.
After the fall of communism in the rest of Eastern Europe, a protest began in the middle of December 1989 in Timişoara and it quickly turned into a national protest against Ceauşescu's regime, the dictator being removed.
An interim organization composed of former communist officials took control of the government and Ion Iliescu temporarily became president of the country. The new government has lifted many of the oppressive policies and closed some of the leaders of the communist regime.
Romania is a NATO member since 2004 and in 2007 it became a member of the European Union.
The present territory of Romania is also called the Carpatho-Danubian-Pontic space, because Romania overlaps a European territorial system, outlined by the shape of the Romanian Carpathians circle and adjacent imposed regions and additional subordinated to the Carpathians, in the south being bordered by the Danube, and in the eastern part by the Black Sea.
On the Globe, Romania is situated in the northern hemisphere, at the intersection of parallel 45 ° north latitude and 25 ° east longitude meridian and in Europe in the central southeast part at approximately equal distances from the extremities of European continent. Romania is bordered to the north by Ukraine, the southern border is formed by Bulgaria (much of it being aquatic border, to the Danube), to the west by Hungary, in south-west by Serbia, and in the east with the Republic of Moldova (entirely composed by Prut). Romanian borders are spanned on 3150 km, 1876 km of which became in 2007 the borders of the European Union (to Serbia, Moldova and Ukraine), while with the Black Sea, the formed border has a length of 194 km on the continental shelf (245 km offshore). Romania's surface is 238 391 km ², plus 23 700 km ² of the Black Sea platform.
Romanian fauna is especially divided according to vegetation. Thus, specific for steppe and grasslands are the following species: rabbit, hamster, ground squirrels, pheasant, bustard, quail, carp, crucian, pike, pike, catfish; for deciduous forest floor (oak and beech): wild boar, wolf, fox, barbel, woodpecker, finch: for coniferous forest floor: trout, huck, lynx, deer and specific to alpine wildlife are the chamois and bald eagles.
In particular, the Danube Delta is the abode of hundreds of species of birds, including pelicans, swans, geese and flamingos, protected by law (as well as feral pigs and lynx). Delta also is a seasonal stopover for migratory birds. Some of the rare species of birds in Dobrogea area are the Dalmatian pelican, pygmy cormorant, spoonbill, red-breasted goose and great stream and winter swan.
Romanian climate is primarily determined by its position on the globe, as well as its geographical position on European continent. These features give a temperate continental climate with transition shades.
The extension of the country’s territory on almost 5° of latitude requires larger differences between south and north of the country in terms of temperature than about 10 ° C expansion of longitude, thus the average annual temperature in the south amounts to about 11° C, in the north of the country, at comparable altitudes the values of this parameter are lower with about 3° C. Between western and eastern extremities of the national territory, heat difference is reduced to 1° C (10 ° C in the West, 9 ° C in the east).
The relief of the country has a vital role in climate delimitation and floors. The Carpathian Mountains form a barrier that separates the mainland harsh climates from east of the western ocean and Adriatic type. In conclusion, the Romanian climate is a temperate-continental one with four seasons and it is marked by the influences of steppe climates of the east, Adriatic in the south-west, oceanic in the north-western and west, still keeping the identity of the Carpatho-Ponto –Danubian climate.
Rainfall is moderate, ranging from insufficient amount of 400 mm in Dobrogea to 500 mm in Romanian Plain to 600 mm in the West Plain. With altitude, rainfall increases over 1000 mm per year in some places.
Crossed by the Danube waters, Romania has a varied landscape, including forested Carpathians, Black Sea coast and the Danube Delta, the best preserved delta in Europe. Romanian villages generally maintain traditional lifestyles. Romania enjoys an abundance of religious architecture and retains some medieval towns and castles.
Tourism in Romania focuses on natural landscapes and its rich history, having also an important contribution to the economy of the country. In 2006, domestic and international tourism has provided 4.8% of GDP and about half a million jobs (5.8% of total employment). After trade, tourism is the second important branch of the service sector. Of Romania's economic sectors, tourism is dynamic and in rapid course of development, being also characterized by a large potential for expansion. After World Travel and Tourism Council estimates, Romania occupies the fourth rank among countries experiencing a rapid development of tourism, with an annual growth of the tourism potential of 8% from 2007 to 2016. The number of tourists grew from 4.8 million in 2002 to 6.6 million in 2004. Also in 2005, the Romanian tourism has attracted investment of 400 million euro.
In recent years, Romania has become a favorite destination for many Europeans (more than 60% of foreign tourists come from EU countries), and rivaling and being in competition with countries like Bulgaria, Greece, Italy or Spain. Resorts such as Mangalia, Saturn, Venus, Neptun, Olimp and Mamaia (sometimes called the Romanian Riviera) are among the main touristic attractions during the summer. In winter, ski resorts in the Prahova Valley and Poiana Braşov are favorite destinations of foreign tourists. For their medieval atmosphere or nearby castles, many Transylvanian cities like Sibiu, Braşov, Sighişoara, Cluj-Napoca or Târgu Mureş have become major attractions for tourists. Recently rural tourism developed and it focuses on promoting folklore and traditions. The main attractions are the Bran Castle, painted monasteries of Northern Moldavia, the wooden churches of Transylvania or the Merry Cemetery in Săpânţa. Romania offers natural attractions such as the Danube Delta, Iron Gates, Scărişoara Cave and other caves from the Apuseni Mountains.
With its complex functions, the position in the country and the many objectives of historical, architectural and other nature value, Bucharest is a major tourist center of Romania. Bucharest is distinguished by the eclectic mix of architectural styles from the Old Court, the remains of the palace of the XV century of Vlad Tepes - who was the founder of the city and also the inspiration source for Dracula character - to orthodox churches, Second Empire-style villa, to the heavy Stalinist architecture of the communist period and ending with the Parliament Palace, a colossal building with six thousand rooms, the second largest in the world after the Pentagon.
Bukovina is located in the north of Romania, in the north west of Moldavia. Picturesque mountain region with ethnographic traditions that are unchanged, Bukovina is remarked with a dynamic tourist activity, due primarily to the monasteries. The five monasteries with exterior painting, entered the world heritage tourism, retain their characteristics after more than 450 years.
UNESCO World Heritage List includes monuments in Romania such as: Saxon settlements with fortified churches in Transylvania, the painted churches of northern Moldavia, the wooden churches of Maramures, Horezu Monastery, the citadel of Sighişoara, the Dacian fortresses from Orăştie Mountains and Danube Delta. Also in 2007, Sibiu was the European Capital of Culture together with Luxembourg.